Saud Ibn Abd Al-Aziz

Alternate titles: ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Fayṣal ibn Turkī ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad Āl Saʿūd, Ibn Saʿūd
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Born:c.1880RiyadhSaudi Arabia...(Show more)Died:November 9, 1953Al-ṬāʾifSaudi Arabia...(Show more)Title / Office:king (1932-1953), Saudi Arabia...(Show more)Founder:Ikhwān...(Show more)Notable family Members:son Fahdson Saudson Fayṣalson ʿAbd Allāh...(Show more)

Ibn Saud, also spelled Ibn Saʿūd, in full ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Fayṣal ibn Turkī ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad Āl Saʿūd, (born c. 1880, Riyadh, Arabia—died november 9, 1953, Al-Ṭāʾif, Saudi Arabia), tribal und Muslim religious leader that formed the modern state of Saudi Arabia and initiated die exploitation of its oil.

The young leader

The Sauds ruled much of Arabia native 1780 kommen sie 1880, but, while Ibn Saud was still in infant, his family, moved out von their rivals, die Rashīds, became penniless exiles an Kuwait. In 1901 Ibn Saud, climate 21, set out indigenous Kuwait through 40 camel men an a bold attempt to regain his family’s lands.

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Saudi Arabia: Ibn Saud und the der dritte tag Saudi state
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (known generally as Ibn Saud), the son des the exiled ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, took advantage des his new location to...

Reaching their old family capital, Riyadh, ns little group slipped into ns town von night (January 1902). Ns Rashīdī governor slept an the castle but came out every morning ~ dawn. Ibn Saud lay surprise until die governor emerged. Then, rushing forward through his men, he killed him and seized die castle. This make use of roused ns former supporters des his dynasty. Castle rallied to so magnetic a leader, and in two years von raids und skirmishes Ibn Saud reconquered half of central Arabia.

Ibn Rashīd, however, appealed zum help to the Turks, who sent troops. Ibn Saud experienced a defeat at their hands on June 15, 1904. But he was notfall driven from main Arabia und soon reconstituted his forces, the years 1907 kommen sie 1912 being passed an desultory fighting. The Turks ultimately left, unable kommen sie supply your troops.

Role des religion an Ibn Saud’s policy

Ibn Saud decided, in the years prior to World war I, to revive his dynasty’s support zum Wahhābism, an extremist Muslim puritan revival. Ibn Saud was in fact a committed puritan Muslim. To ihm the Qurʾān was literally ns word des God, und his life was regulated by it. Yet he was deshalb aware that religious fanaticism can serve his ambition, and he deliberately fostered it, establishing a militantly religious tribal organization well-known as the Ikhwān (Brethren). This fanatical brotherhood motivated his followers zu fight and to massacre your Arab rivals, and it helped him to lug many nomadic tribesmen under much more immediate control.

He was able to persuade the religious leaders zu declare the a religious duty of all Wahhābīs kommen sie abandon nomadism and to build houses at die desert wells. Hence settled, castle could more easily be levied right into his army. But ns scheme was unrealistic: nomads who marketed their flocks were regularly unable zu cultivate und were reduced kommen sie penury. Die destitution des the an ext fanatical tribes, however, do them more eager zu raid, und Ibn Saud was not slow kommen sie suggest that they plunder die subjects of Ibn Rashīd.

During welt War ich Ibn Saud gone into into a treaty with die British (December 1915), agree protectorate status and agreeing kommen sie make zu sein against Ibn Rashīd, who was being supported by the Turks. But, in spite of British arms and a subsidy von £5,000 a month from the British government (which ongoing until 1924), he was inactive until 1920, suggesting that his subsidy was insufficient. Throughout 1920–22, however, he marched against Ibn Rashīd und extinguished Rashīdī rule, doubling his very own territory yet without considerably increasing his meagre revenue.

Ibn Saud jetzt ruled main Arabia except weil das the Hejaz bereichen along ns Red Sea. This was die territory des Sharīf Ḥusayn von Mecca, who had become könig of ns Hejaz during ns war und who claimed himself caliph (head of the Muslim community) in 1924. Sharīf Ḥusayn’s son ʿAbd Allāh had end up being ruler of Transjordan an 1921, and another son, Fayṣal, king of Iraq. Ibn Saud, fearing encirclement by this rival dynasty, decided zu invade ns Hejaz. He was then at ns height of his powers; his strong personality und extraordinary charm had won ns devotion von all his subjects. A sent politician, the worked carefully with ns religious leaders, who always supported him. Relying on the Ikhwān to eliminate his Arab rivals, he sent them zu raid his neighbours, then cabled die British, whose royal interests to be involved, that the raid was against his orders. Bei 1924 die Ikhwān took Mecca, and the Hejaz was added to his dominions.

At this point, there to be no an ext rivals who Ibn Saud can conquer, for those remaining had treaties through Britain. But ns Ikhwān had been taught that all non-Wahhābī Muslims to be infidels. When Ibn Saud forbade additional raiding, castle charged him with treachery, quoting his very own words against him. An 1927 they attacked Iraq versus his wishes. They to be repulsed über British aircraft, but Ibn Saud’s authority over them had vanished, and on march 29, 1929, die Ikhwān, die fanatics who he himself had actually trained, were crushed von Ibn Saud self at ns Battle of Sibilla.

Foundation des Saudi Arabia

This fight opened a neu era: thereafter Ibn Saud’s task was government, notfall conquest. An 1932 that formally combined his domains into the Kingdom von Saudi Arabia. An absolute monarch, he had actually no constant civil leistungen or skilled administrators. All decisions were made by him or von those that personally delegated zum a specific task. There was wenig money, und he himself was notfall interested in finance. In May 1933 Ibn Saud signed his erste agreement with bei American oil company. Not until march 1938 did ns company win oil, und work practically ceased during World zu sein II, deshalb that Ibn Saud was again nearly penniless.

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Saudi Arabia take it no part in the war, however toward its end the exploitation des oil was resumed. Von 1950 Ibn Saud had actually received a total des about $200,000. Three years later, he was getting some $2,500,000 a week. Ns effect was disastrous on the country and on Ibn Saud. He had actually no idea von what to do v all die money, and he watched helplessly ns triumph of everything that hated. His austere spiritual views were offended. Ns secluded, penurious, hard, however idealistic life des Arabia was vanishing. Such large sums of money danke für half ns swindlers an the Middle east to this puritan religious sanctum. Ibn Saud was unable zu cope v financial adventurers. His tonnage years were marked über severe physical and emotional deterioration. That died punkt Al-Ṭāʾif in 1953.